Lipid Notes


Fats and Oils










[Cis and Trans Bonds]


















Colorful Forest

Rhodopsin in your eyes - links







         Family of organic compounds with multiple rings

         They contain a steroid nucleus

         They act as signal molecules some are classified as hormones

         Vitamins also belong to this category

         Cholesterol is the basis in structure for these molecules

         Cholesterol is synthesized in the liver used to regulate lipid levels in the body

         Testosterone and estrogen are sex hormones that regulate sexual development and sexual activity

         Cortisol is a regulatory hormone that affects the metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins.  It also affects the salt balance and water balance.





Vitamin A

Formed from Beta carotene.  These are contained in yellow vegetables.  A deficiency of this vitamin leads to dry skin, eyes, and internal body surfaces.  A lack can lead to night blindness

Vitamin D

Regulates the absorption of calcium from the intestines.  It is necessary for the proper deposition of calcium in the bones

Vitamin E

Protects cells from the damaging effects of oxidation-reduction reactions.  It prevents unhealthy changes in the double bonds in the unsaturated fatty acids of membranes phospholipids

Vitamin K

Found in green leafy vegetables like Romaine lettuce and spinach.  It is also synthesized by bacteria in the intestinal tract of humans  This vitamin is essential for the formation of blood clots



         Found on animal hair

         On the outside of feathers

         Plant leaves have an exterior waxy coating as do some fruits

         Bees make their honey combs out of wax

         All waxes have the same structure.  They are formed by an ester linkage between a saturated, long-chain fatty acid and a saturated, long- chain alcohol.  Their chain consists of molecules that are 40-60-CH2 groups in length